Monday, August 19, 2019
The purpose of this paper is to discuss what Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is and how it came about, what different types of ADR there is to choose from and how ADR benefits both parties compared to litigation. ADR can quickly resolve almost any minor issue regarding most civil cases family, neighbors, employers, contractors, etc. ADR includes mediation (also known as conciliation), arbitration and settlement conferences. Some of the benefits of ADR include cost, speed, confidentiality, control, cooperative resolution and industry experts. Brief History of ADR ADR has been around for many years but has really taken off over the past few decades specifically after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed. In the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed Ã¢â¬Å"discrimination in employment or public accommodations on the basis of race, sex or national origin.Ã¢â¬ These laws opened up the Ã¢â¬Å"gatewayÃ¢â¬ for employee's to fight employer's for fair treatment. Also, during this time the women's movement and the environmental movements where growing quickly leading to more and more court cases. The court system where becoming overwhelmed and cases were being delayed for long period of times. As the courts were trying to resolve cases quickly there were more and more procedural errors being made. ADR's like mediation and arbitration became a popular way of to deal with these types of cases and others and it was helping relieve pressure on the already overloaded court system. The judicial system is still considered a fair way of disputing resolutions. However, it's time consuming and expensive. Some pro's of litigation, according to Citizen's Guide.ca: Pro's and Con's of litigation, are they can create a precedent that will prevent future ... ... 2011 Henton, Lesley. What is a Settlement Conference? 2009-2011. July 18, 2011 Woods, Robert E. What are the Benefits to Alternative Dispute Resolution? 1995. July 6, 2011 Judicial Council of California. Alternative Dispute Resolution: Options for Resolving Your Dispute. 2011. July 12, 2011 Bakke-Norman Law Offices. Alternative Dispute Resolution: A Client's Guide to the Language and Procedure. 2010. July 15, 2011 Beyond Factory Farming Coalition. Citizen's Guide to Confronting a Factory Farm. April 2007. July 9, 2011
Sunday, August 18, 2019
LetÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about the importance of having a Ã¢â¬Å"real job.Ã¢â¬ I have spent a huge portion of my life working for someone else. I consider myself to have three full time jobs. All of my jobs are equally important to me. Yes I lead a normal life, but it is a very hectic one. I have a full-time job, attend school full-time, and I am a full-time parent to four kids. My day starts when I hear the alarm blaring at 6 a.m. and I smell the fresh brewed coffee that I set up the night before. I get out of bed where I have been nestled into my warm flannel sheets, and begin to wake up my children so they can get ready for school. As we all know breakfast is the most important meal of the day, so I start the pancakes, eggs, or waffles like I do every morning. After breakfast we all take our turns in the bathroom getting ready for the busy day ahead of us. My daughter of course is the Ã¢â¬Å"queen of primping.Ã¢â¬ She always takes the longest. I get the kids all bundled up with backpacks and lunches, onto the bus they go. Ã¢â¬Å"WhewÃ¢â¬ I have a brief minute to breathe. Now I am off to what I consider my second job, which is going to Washtenaw Community College. I am attending school to get my Associates in Applied Science Degree for Nursing. This semester I have fourteen credit hours. I attend school Monday- Thursday from 9 a.m.- 11 a.m. I find school to be very demanding on me because I am coming back after fourteen years of taking a break. I know it will be well worth it in the long run. I also believe that I am setting an example for my children. When I leave school I start my third job. This is the one that Ã¢â¬Å"brings home the bacon.Ã¢â¬ I work as a server at ApplebeeÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurant. I also take on the role as Assistant Manager twice a week. My primary role is to make sure that every guest that walks into the restaurant is taken care of. This job is like my second family. Recently I found out that a co-worker has a life threatening disease called Multiple Sclerosis. Just so happens, she is my best friend. The joy of working for big corporation is that they will do anything to help others.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
If a childÃ¢â¬â¢s hearing is lost or damaged a child may lack speech development. A child needs to learn to speak before they are able to read and write therefore there is a delay in language and communication development this will also have impact on their social and emotional development loosing self-esteem when older and may be reluctant to join in with their peers and joining in with discussions in class A child who is overweight could have disruption within their physical development not being able to do as well in sports and pe as others. This will have effect on their emotional development feeling self-conscious of what others think. so when they are getting changed they could feel embarrassed which could lead to teasing which will then affect their social development by not wanting to join in with games and affecting their health even more. If there is sudden death in the family and it is someone they are close to this would have an effect on their emotional development feeling sad, lonely, upset and may not know where to turn to or who to talk to as other members of their family are upset as well. With not knowing who to turn to and all the feelings running through their heads this could have an affect also on their intellectual development not being able to concentrate in class showing bad behaviour to get attention and not wanting to communicate with others to tell what they are going through lacking there social development.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Candidate's name: Eunika Orlowska Candidate's number: School's name: School's number: Determining the amount of CaCO3 in eggshell of hen's egg | Design | DCP | CE | Aspect 1 | | | | Aspect 2 | | | | Aspect 3 | | | | Introduction: The back titration is a method used in determining the amount of excess of the reagent. The calcium carbonate is a substance which gives the eggshell stiffness. Research question: What is the amount of calcium carbonate in the eggshell measured by back titration? Table 1. Variables.Type of variable | Variable | Unit | Dependent | Amount of calcium carbonate in eggshell | % by mass | Independent | Volume of titrated excess of hydrochloric aced | cm3 | Controlled | Volume of hydrochloric acid Weight of eggshell Temperature Amount of phenolophateine | cm3 g oC drop | Uncontrolled | Purity of solutions Biological diversity of eggs Pressure | Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â hPa | Equipment: buret 5 beakers 50 cm3 baguette 1 plastic pipette balance clamp 2,5 g of eggshell morta r 100 cm3 of 1moldm-3 hydrochloric acid ap. 70 cm3 of 1moldm-3 sodium hydroxide 20 cm3 pipette Risk assessment: you have to remember to wear gloves, goggles and apron. Solutions may be irritating. Method: Crush to dust eggshell in the mortar. Fill each of the 5 beakers with 20 cm3 of hydrochloric acid measured by glass pipette. Add 0. 5 g of eggshell dust to each beaker, measured by balance. While the reaction of eggshell with acid occurs, prepare the buret and clamp for titration. Make sure they are clean. Pour NaOH solution into the buret to the Ã¢â¬Ë0' level. Make sure all of the eggshell reacted with the HCl. If not, you can help the reaction by using the baguette.Put two drops of phenolophateine into each beaker using the plastic pipette. Take the first beaker and titrate the excess of hydrochloric acid. When the solution starts to be pinkish, record the volume of titrated NaOH. Refill the buret to the Ã¢â¬Ë0' level and repeat the procedure for each beaker. Remember to reco rd the results. Remember to be careful and to leave your workplace clean! Data Collection Table 2. Raw data. The weight of eggshell reacting with HCl and titrated NaOH. Number of trial | Weight of eggshell [gÃ ±0,01g] | Volume of HCl [cm3Ã ±0,05cm3] | Volume of titrated NaOH [cm3Ã ±0,05cm3] | 1 | 0. 9 | 20. 00 | 9. 60 | 2 | 0. 50 | 20. 00 | 11. 50 | 3 | 0. 51 | 20. 00 | 11. 60 | 4 | 0. 50 | 20. 00 | 9. 90 | 5 | 0. 50 | 20. 00 | 10. 30 | Mean | 0. 50Ã ±0,01 | 20. 00Ã ±0,05 | 9. 93Ã ±0,05 | Standard deviation | 0. 00047 | 0. 00 | 0. 29 | Uncertanties were taken as in measurments, not calculated by formula, to avoid too large and unreliable uncertainties in further calculations in which they're calculated according to formulas: in case of division and multiplication: =dA/A+dB/B, where d is overall uncertainty, dA is uncertainty of A and dB is uncertainty of B in case of addition and subtraction: d=dA+dB, where where d is overall uncertainty, dA is uncertainty of A and dB is uncer tainty of B Trials 2 and 3 were rejected because of too large differentiation of results. Data Processing Two reactions occured in the experiment. Firstly, the HCl reacted with CaCO3 and secondly, the excess of HCl was neutralized by NaOH. 2HCl + CaCO3 > CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O HCl + NaOH > NaCl + H2O 1. Calculating the amount of HCl at the beginning of reaction CmHCl = 1. 0 moldm-3 VHCl = 20. 00 cm3 = 0. 20 dm3 Ã ± 0. 00005 n = Cm * V n = 1. 0* 0. 020 = 0. 020 mol Ã ± 0. 00025 2. Calculating mean amount of NaOH which neutralized the excess of HCl CmNaOH = 1. 0 moldm-3 VNaOH = 9. 93 cm3 = 0. 0099 dm3 Ã ± 0. 00005 n = Cm * V n = 1. 0 * 0. 0099 = 0. 0099 mol Ã ± 0. 0005 3. Calculating the amount of HCl which reacted with CaCO3 0. 020 mol Ã¢â¬â 0. 0099dm3 = 0. 010 mol Ã ± 0. 00075 4. Calculating the amount of CaCO3 which was in the eggshell We know that the molar ratio in the reaction between HCl and CaCO3 is 2/1, which means that 2 moles of HCl react with 1 mole of CaCO3. If 0. 010 moles of HCl reacted with CaCO3 then there was 0. 05 mole of CaCO3 in the eggshell. nCaCO3 = 0. 010/2 = 0. 005Ã ±0. 0075 5. Calculating the percentage of CaCO3 in the eggshell. MCaCO3 = 40. 09 + 12. 01 + 3 * 16,00 = 100. 1 gmol-1 nCaCO3 = 0. 005 mol Ã ± 0. 0075 m = M * n m = 0. 005*100. 1 = 0. 50 g Ã ± 0. 0075 meggshell=0. 50 Ã ± 0. 01 CCaCO3 in eggshell = 0. 50 / 0. 50 = 100 % Ã ± 3. 5% Table 3. The results and uncertaities Calculated value | Value | Uncertainty | Number of moles of HCl at the beginning of reaction | 0. 020 mol | 0. 00025 mol | Mean amount of NaOH which neutralized HCl | 0. 0099 mol | 0. 005 mol | Mean amount of HCl which reacted with CaCO3 in the eggshell | 0. 010 mol | 0. 00075 mol | Number of moles of CaCO3 in the eggshell | 0. 005 mol | 0. 0075 mol | Molar mass of CaCO3 | 100,1 gmol-1 | Ã¢â¬â | Percentage of CaCO3 | 100% | 3. 5% | The eggshell consists of 94-97% of calcium carbonate, meanly 95. 5 %. From collected data it is 100%, which suggests that pe rcentage error was not big and remains in accepted value of 20%. percentage error = (|theoretical value Ã¢â¬â experimental value| ? theoretical value) x 100% = (95. 5 Ã¢â¬â 100 ? 95. 5) = 4 %Conclusion and Evaluation The eggshell consists of 94 Ã¢â¬â 97% of calcium carbonate. The experiment suggests that the eggshell has 100% of calcium carbonate and the percentage error is 4 % which means calculations and results where accurate. The fact that the result has shown 100% of calcium carbonate in the eggshell may lay in the construction of eggshell which is biological Ã¢â¬Å"machineÃ¢â¬ to give hen's embryo the best possible environment for development. Apart from calcium carbonate, there are other components of eggshell, for example magnesium carbonate and calcium phosphate which also react with hydrochloric acid.Reaction of calcium phosphate with hydrochloric acid: Ca3(PO4)2 + 6HCl > 3CaCl2 + 2H3PO4 this reaction should't have influence on titration that much, because as a result there's the same number of hydrogen ions which can be neutralized, but the second reaction, of magnesium carbonate and hydrochloric acid: MgCO3 + 2HCl > MgCl2 + CO2 + H2O also takes HCl to it's reaction, decreases number of H+ ions and so suggests that more HCl reacted with calcium carbonate. This is the uncontrolled variable, the impurity of the eggshell, which affected the result.Other factor, which may have had influence on the results is the human's imprecision. The used equipment was as accurate as possible in school laboratory, but still, the titration is made by hand and by eye, which may make mistakes although back titration is the best possible way in school laboratory to check the amount of particular components in mixtures. Other method, which would distinguish between magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate is gas spectrometry Ã¢â¬â mass spectrometry. This method uses combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. First, the substance is put into gas chr omatograph.The mobile phase, in which the particles of substances move towards the stationary phase is made of unreactive gas, such as nitrogen or helium. In this, the substance is separated into particular components and then, the mass spectrometer analyses the components to identify them. This method is commonly used to determine the ingredients of substances, of food, beverages, perfumes. Also, it is useful in medicine and and in exploring Universe, for example, one GC-MS was taken by Curiosity to examine the surface of Mars. Summing up: in school laboratory, accuracy of experiments is limited by equipment.Better accuracy can be obtained by using more accurate balance, as no other equipment can be changed in used method. Back titration can't be replaced by other methods of determining the percentage of CaCO3 in the eggshell, as it is the best way to do it in school laboratory, although generally more accurate methods are created, using machines which exclude the human factor from experiments, for example gas chromatography Ã¢â¬â mass spectrometry. Bibliography http://antoine. frostburg. edu/chem/senese/101/consumer/faq/eggshell-composition. shtml 18th November 2012 J. Green, S. Damji Ã¢â¬Å"ChemistryÃ¢â¬ IBID 2008
Thursday, August 15, 2019
DATAÃ¢â¬ , when the edit is loaded onto the machine, he edit will appear With the title Ã¢â¬Å"LiverwurstÃ¢â¬ . The second method involves using Symphony which allows you convert a Stephanie simile (. Sir file) into the DATA format generated by Kinsman's online Step Editor. Stephanie is generally seen as having a better user interface and testing environment for creating edit data than Kinsman's online editor. Symphony also allows you to convert songs that the Sonoma Step Editor does not support, including older songs from past mixes and DIR XX songs. First, you must download the latest version of Symphony at http://sites. Goose. Mom/site/dairymaid/Symphony. Zip . Extract the files into a folder on your computer. Launch the program. You may receive an error that an Internet connection is needed to use Symphony. Symphony works by simulating the Sonoma Step Editor by sending the website the step data needed to generate an edit file, but it will replace the appropriate music id so t hat the file generated works for the song you choose. Because of the is, an internet connection is needed. The first step is to find the simile of the song you want to convert. Typically, Stephanie songs are found in If electroplatesSongs or Files(ex.)StephanieSongs (for Vista/7).Select the . SMS file and the title of the song will be displayed in the textbook below it. Below this is a list of songs from the master id list that might possibly represent the song you chose. Sometimes the title of your . SMS file may not match what is found in the master id list. Try editing the title of the song so that the list of songs eventually shows you the song you are converting. An example is when you edit Ã¢â¬Å"Healing Vision(Angelic Mix)Ã¢â¬ , the master id list has it titled Ã¢â¬Å"Healing Vision -Angelic Mix-Ã¢â¬Å". Modifying the textbook to Ã¢â¬Å"Healing VisionÃ¢â¬ will show several songs with the name, including Ã¢â¬Å"HealingVision -Angelic Mix-Ã¢â¬Å". Select that song as the o ne you are converting. Once you have selected the song, select the style of play you are converting (single, double or couple). The difficulty below it indicates which chart from the . SMS file you are converting over. This might be a Ã¢â¬Å"ChallengeÃ¢â¬ chart or Ã¢â¬Å"EditÃ¢â¬ chart. If there are multiple Edit charts in your . SMS file, only the first one can be read. On the right Of Symphony's screen are options for the edit data produced. The region is for the region your playing in (North America or Europe). The Difficulty indicates what the chart will show up as in DIR X/XX.Remember, some songs in XX will play a Chinese version if the Challenge chart is selected, so if your edit indicates it is a Challenge chart and the song has a Chinese version, the Chinese version will play for your edit. The rating is the number of Ã¢â¬Å"feetÃ¢â¬ the song is rated. The comments are generic comments you can give your edit that show up in the game. The edits name is the name of yo ur edit (limited to 8 characters). Finally, the Measure offset is used for cases where your . SMS file's first beat isn't on the same measure as the official data's first beat. An example is the song Red Zone.In the official data, the first beat is found on the 5th measure, but in the . Sir file found on genius-I-banisher's website, the first beat starts on the 6th measure. Because of this, the offset must be set to -1 , which indicates the first beat will be moved backwards one measure. For songs in which a known offset is needed, Symphony will have the offset already programmed in. As more songs are discovered to need an offset, Symphony will be updated to reflect what those offsets are. When you have set all of your options, click Ã¢â¬Å"Generate . DATAÃ¢â¬ . After several seconds, a Save File Dialog should display, allowing you to save your enervated .DATA file to your computer. After you have generated all of your edits, you must combine the edits into a Ã¢â¬Å"zipÃ¢â¬ fil e. Windows has a built in Zip program, but other alternatives are zip and Winner. You can include up to 30 edits in one zip file. Once you have done this, you must visit Kinsman's library manager at http://direct. Contamination. Com/address/library_manager/ index. PH. Here you will select what region you are in and select the zip file you just created and click Ã¢â¬Å"SaveÃ¢â¬ . A file will be returned to you titled DIR EDIT U. DATA. The . DATA generated this time MUST be named or (for Europe).This file must be saved to a folder Ã¢â¬Å"DIR_EDIT' at the root level of your USB drive. Once this is done, you may use the thumb drive to play your edits on a DIR X or XX machine! Troubleshooting put the -SMS files onto my thumb drive and the game didn't recognize them. DIR X/XX does not recognize the . SMS format, this is why the program Symphony is needed. Symphony converts the . SMS format to a format readable by DIR X/ put the -DATA files in DIR EDIT and the game did not recognize them . This is because the game does not recognized individual . DATA file. The game requires that all edits are compiled into a single .DATA file called for Europe). This is what the Library Manager found on Kinsman's website (see above) is used for. 3. My edit seems off, how do I sync it? Edits do not contain any syncing data, only step placement and note types. If the step data seems to be a measure or more early or late, use the Measure offset feature to adjust the data so that it lines up with the game's music. If the song's official data is off sync, your edit data will be off sync as well. 4. My edit has blank measures, what gives? Edit data only supports 4th, 8th, 1 oh and 12th notes. This, 32nd and this are not supported.Also, because of the limited format, 12th notes can only exist inside a single quarter note range. Any quarter note section that contains this and any other note (ethos, this, etc) will be blank. 5. What about hands? The game supports hands if they are part of a freeze, but hands as a set of notes pressed on the same beat are not supported by the game. 6. Some of my freezes are being combined into a long freeze, what gives? If freeze arrows of the same direction are only separated by a 16th note, the game will combine these into a single freeze arrow. This is a bug that's present in edit mode in all DIR versions.
Introduction: MEK Overview The Mujahadeen-e-Khalq (MEK) is also known as the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI). MEK has been sporadically active in attempting to overthrow the Iranian government since the early 1960s, and its members have used a variety of tactics to achieve their political ends including political campaigning, subversion, and violent attacks targeting civilians. Due in part to their targeting of American civilians living in Iran during the 1970s and their support of Saddam Hussein, the United States State Department has listed MEK as a Foreign Terrorist Organization. In October 2012, the U.S. State Department will decide whether to remove MEK from the FTO list based on MEKÃ¢â¬â¢s denouncing terrorist tactics and devotion to diplomatic means to gain power versus violent attacks (Masters 2012). Origins, Ideology and Goals MEK was born out of a student-group resistance to Shah Pahlavi in 1965. The founding members of MEK in Tehran regarded the Shah as a U.S. puppet, and they felt that his westernization of Iran went against IranÃ¢â¬â¢s traditional Islamic values. They believed in a violent overthrow of the Shah to return Iran to Islamic rule. In 1979, the group aligned itself with Ayatollah Khomeini in hopes that it could run for office after Shah PahlaviÃ¢â¬â¢s exile, but Ayatollah Khomeini succeeded in overthrowing the Shah and he crushed any opposition to his new government. Since 1979, MEK has been trying to gain the opportunity to run for office in IranÃ¢â¬â¢s government by shifting alliances and violently attacking the forces, which have prevented its political ambitions (Goulka 2009). In 2003, the group publically denounced violence in an attempt to foster global political support, but its place on the Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) list is blocking it from achieving its desired glob al support. According to MEK, it has Ã¢â¬Å"strived for freedom and human rights, first against the despotic reign of Shah, and now the theocratic tyranny of the ayatollahsÃ¢â¬ (MEK n.d.). It is Ã¢â¬Å"an anti-fundamentalist MuslimÃ organization which believes in a democratic, progressive, and tolerant interpretation of Islam, according to which elections and public suffrage are the sole indicators of political legitimacy. The PMOI endeavors for a secular, democratic, and non-nuclear republic, and is committed to free elections, gender equality, and abolition of all discrimination against national and religious minoritiesÃ¢â¬ (MEK n.d.) Ã¢â¬Å"Non-nuclearÃ¢â¬ is a key consideration for the United States and other western powers. Iran has increasingly taunted the world with its nuclear program and refuses to deescalate military tensions. In bold statements of aggression, in 2012 alone, Iran has announced two new missiles, an air defense site, and a fleet of ultra-fast gun boats designe d to zip into battle against larger western fleets. In a twist of fate, MEKÃ¢â¬â¢s future may lie in the hands of the United States. The United States has until October 1, 2012 to decide if it will delist MEK from the FTO. If MEK is delisted it will enjoy much more freedom of movement around the world and it will be able to legally receive funds from U.S. based sympathizers. It is not unreasonable to think that the U.S. will delist MEK in an effort to undermine the Iranian Government, much like Saddam Hussein offered MEK a home in 1986 to undermine Iran during the Iran Iraq war. Leadership, Funding and Capabilities Most of MEKÃ¢â¬â¢s original leadership was arrested and executed in 1971, but Massoud Rajavi escaped death and remains a leader of MEK. Though he has not been seen publicly since 2003, his wife, Maryam Rajavi, Ã¢â¬Å"is the public face of the MEK in her role as president-elect of the National Council of Resistance of IranÃ¢â¬ (Jones 2012). In the past four decades the group has used several methods to raise funds for its campaign. Some methods have made the group infamous and add to the list of reasons that the U.S. and several other nations have classified it as a Foreign Terrorist Organization. MEK has long been skilled in deception and has used that skill to affect its fund raising efforts. For example, its solicitation of funds for Iranian refugees, child welfare, and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s medical services proven to be fraudulent (FBI n.d.). Until 2003, MEK had a substantial armory due to its previous relationshipÃ with Saddam Hussein. Its inventory often included artillery, tanks, aircraft, rocket launchers, rifles, mortars, shells, rockets, land mines, and bullets (FBI n.d.). In 2003, the United States bombed MEK camps and bunkers based on their relationship to Saddam Hussein and the idea that they posed a significant threat with their armaments. MEK members no longer have easy access to such large stockpiles of arms. MEK is now facing deportation from its Iraqi camp Ashraf and remains disarmed. Operating Bases, Support Bases, Strengths MEK has moved its headquarters over the years as a necessary part of survival. Originally founded in Tehran, it moved to Paris after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. The group had allied with the Ayatollah Khomeini, but Khomeini forced the group out in fear of opposition. In 1986 Saddam Hussein invited the group to relocate to camp Ashraf. Iraq was at war with Iran, and relocating the group from Paris to Iraq was HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s method of undermining Iran. At the start of the U.S. led war in Iraq under Operation Iraqi Freedom, the group was classified as enemy combatants and subsequently confined to Camp Ashraf, where approximately 3,000 MEK now live (Carter 2011). The new government of Iraq has declared that all members of MEK must leave the country, and the U.N. is currently working to resettle the group elsewhere. For the moment MEK enjoys limited support from sympathizers around the world, but it is stateless which is both a strength and a weakness. The U.N., citing international law, will not allow the Iraqi government to force members to leave Iraq or force repatriation until members have a suitable place to live. This predicament brings MEK some publicity and sympathy for their cause, but IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to expel MEK could not have occurred at a worse time. With June 2013 elections nearing, increasing tension with western military powers, and an imminent Israeli preemptive strike against Iranian nuclear targets, MEK leadership must act swiftly to ensure its place in the 2013 elections. PART II Ã¢â¬â RED TEAM ANALYSIS Why Use Red Team Analysis? Given the complex dynamics of the Iranian situation, analysts should useÃ the Red Team Analysis technique in order to best predict what course(s) of action MEK leadership will take to assume control of the government. By empathizing with the MEK leadership analysts can gain better insight to most likely courses of action. The end state of this analytic technique is to provide Congress and the President with an accurate forecast of MEKÃ¢â¬â¢s courses of action so that the United States may apply the appropriate short and long term foreign policy in the Middle East. Since MEK desires a peaceful, tolerant Iran that can only be legitimized via free elections and public suffrage, it cannot take control of the nation by force. Therefore, MEKÃ¢â¬â¢s options are limited and it must patiently await the 2013 elections regardless of the growing concern of military action and economic sanctions. As President Ahmadinejad continues to escalate military tension with western nations and Israel, through missile, nuclear, and naval programs (Torbati 2012). MEK leadership must carefully calculate how to win popular Iranian support, world support, and financial backing Ã¢â¬â all without ever appearing to be influenced by western powers as previous Iranian leaders had. Restate Current MEK Goals Red Team Analysis must begin with placing oneself in the shoes of MEK leadership. The key to determining any viable course of action is to outline clear goals or milestones. With clear goals, analysts can categorize what actions and strategies are available and likely. According to MEKÃ¢â¬â¢s official website, its current goals, rather, solution to the western-Iranian strife is to Ã¢â¬Å"rid the region and the world of the nightmare of the Islamic fundamentalists armed with nuclear weapons [by] democratic change in Iran by the people and the ResistanceÃ¢â¬ (Rajavi 2010). This stated goal remains largely unchanged from its 1970s goal. The main difference now is that MEK is more tolerant of western aid, albeit, so long as they do not become overly influenced by it. Key Assumptions Check Paramount to the analytic process is a key assumptions check. This step allows analysts to clearly document the start point of their cognitive map as well as allowing time to consider information that challenges cognitiveÃ biases. The key assumptions must be listed in such a way that analysts feel like MEK leaders would if trying to decide how to realize their stated goal of taking control of the Iranian government. Below is a list of key assumptions in this Red Team Analysis. Previous Failures. All previous attempts to control government have failed beginning with the overthrow of the Shah in 1979. This assumption is critical because the MEK believed the Ayatollah Khomeini was their ally. They were betrayed. They banded together only to be exiled within two years and many members were arrested and executed while Khomeini consolidated power. The experience likely taught MEK to distrust any potential allies within the current regime. History of Violence. During the 1960s the Shah used force and violence against government opposition. Uprisings in the 1970s culminated in the exile of the Shah, but into the 1980s MEK fought the new Iranian government. During the Iraq-Iran war that began in the early 1980s, MEK settled just north of Baghdad and fought a cross border war with the clerical regime for twenty more years. Only at the turn of the century did MEK publicly denounce violence and terrorist tactics. The significance is that, while MEK members are accepting of risk and violence, they have matured and realize that they do not operate in a vacuum. MEK understands the need for global acceptance. HUMINT Value. MEK can offer HUMINT to the U.S. No other organization with detailed knowledge of Iran and its military and political system is willing to provide such information to western powers. The U.S. has had extremely limited success installing or recruiting agents in Iran because of extreme scrutiny that outsiders face, and CIA informants are usually discovered due to poor tradecraft (Hosenball 2011). MEK however, has family, friends, sympathizers and safe houses inside Iran. As well, since the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 MEK has received training, equipment and funds to carry out attacks inside Iran and to collaborate with U.S. and Israeli intelligence services (Joshi 2012). MEKÃ¢â¬â¢s HUMINT value is possibly the most important aspect for western powers. MEK leadership understands the power they hold and must leverage it wisely. Knowledge of U.S. Tactics Techniques and Procedures. MEK leaders are aware of U.S. TTPs at the small unit tactics level up through executive branch policymaking. They will play on the American and Israeli fears of a nuclear armed Iran while leveraging their HUMINT and political value to affect their delisting from the FTO. OnceÃ delisted they will be able to receive more funding from international sources, thus requiring less U.S. support and will become less responsive to U.S. demands. Western Support: Critical For Financing, Opposite of Ideology Being listed on the U.S. Foreign Terrorist Organization list impedes MEKÃ¢â¬â¢s financing efforts. In order to gain power they must be delisted Ã¢â¬â decade long endeavor thus far. Its members have cooperated with Israeli and U.S. intelligence services since 2003 in an effort to gain support and take over the political regime in Iran, but its original ideology was very much opposed to any western influence. MEK must exercise extreme caution to ensure that the group does not appear to be another puppet regime of the U.S and especially not in collaboration with Israel. If threatened with defeat, the current regime will likely try to depict MEK as a puppet regime, and if the U.S. loses influence it may also try to publicize MEKÃ¢â¬â¢s cooperation in an effort to decrease its credibility among Iranians. Enormity of the Situation. MEK is currently stateless. Though the U.N. has petitioned several governments to accept MEK members, most have declined to accept them. With nowhere to go MEK is desperate to gain power in Iran because it belongs to no other state. If they fail the Iranian regime will likely execute them, despite President AhmadinejadÃ¢â¬â¢s amnesty offer. Data Collection Options Of the many collection options the United States has at its disposal, a handful stand out as being the most practical. HUMINT may be the best collection option because it offers an inside look at MEK and the status of the Iranian nuclear and defense programs as well as the mentality and plans of regime leaders. For example, an undercover agent, code named Wally, joined the Revolutionary Guard in the 1980s and gave the CIA plans, ideology, weaponry etc, and he was able to recruit several more members of the Revolutionary Guard to turn informer for the CIA (Zucchino 2012). OSINT is another extremely useful collection option, which can provide detailed atmospherics and help depict the support, or lack thereof, of the general public to the current and possible successor regimes. OSINT can also offer information on IranÃ¢â¬â¢s defensive and offensive capabilities as depictedÃ in the recent revelation that Iran has cloned a fleet of ultra-fast gun boats. Originally produced in England, the Bradstone Challenger (Bladerunner) is a speedboat with a revolutionary hull design that affords it great stability at high speeds. Iran illicitly purchased a Bladerunner in 2009, reverse engineered the design, and manufactured its own fleet which the Navy modified to launch torpedoes and missiles at full speed. The Bladerunner fleet, combined with Ã¢â¬Å"an array of heavily armed small craft, including unmanned high-speed Ya Mahdi vessels, Bavar 2 flying boats, Seraj-1 high-speed patrol boats and Zolfaghar fast attack craftÃ¢â¬ (Stock 2012) poses a significant thr eat to the Strait of Hormuz and western naval forces with much larger and slower vessels. SIGINT and MASINT will likely have to wait until military confrontation begins in order to be relevant. MEKÃ¢â¬â¢s equipment inventory is very limited, so SIGINT and MASINT should not be a top priority. GEOINT is relevant in that it depicts the correlation of key terrain to strategic targets and political issues. For example, GEOINT can depict which routes MEK would likely take in order to transit to Tehran or flee Iraq in other ways. It also helps answer contingency operation questions such as, Ã¢â¬Å"what if MEK takes control of the military and attempts to hold the Strait of Hormuz ransom?Ã¢â¬ In a more tactical situation GEOINT can provide detailed dimensions of hideouts and buildings for the U.S. to plan an attack should the need arise. Use of the Intelligence Community The CIA is the best is the best agency to use to handle collection on MEK. The agency has more than half a century of experience in working with sources and is best trained in managing counterintelligence and misinformation techniques. Already, the CIA has worked with MEK members since 2002 when MEK publicized IranÃ¢â¬â¢s underground Uranium enrichment program. Training MEK members in tradecraft techniques and supporting their cross-border subversion tactics allows the CIA to wage a proxy war with Iran while strengthening its relationship and gaining more human intelligence on both MEK and Iran. No other agency within the United States has the resources to foster this type of relationship with MEK. Most Effective Intelligence Analysis Strategies The effective intelligence strategy to use for evaluating MEK and forecasting its actions is to begin with Analysis of Competing Hypotheses and follow those results with the DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s Advocacy method. Analysis of Competing Hypotheses. ACH is ideal for evaluating MEK because there are diverse dynamics involved in forecasting MEK actions. Considering that the U.S. must decide to keep or delist MEK from the FTO on October 1, 2012, ACH would provide decision makers with a documented line of reasoning to support an Intelligence Forecast. DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s Advocacy. The prevailing consensus in Washington is that MEK has morphed from a militant group to a political group in the past decade and will be a more western friendly regime if it comes to power. But what if MEK is playing the west to gain power now, while secretly planning to spread its 1979 revolutionary ideology across the Middle East and North Africa in an attempt to reestablish Persian dominance? It seems that the west is focu sed first on countering a nuclear threat and second on countering any blocking of the Hormuz Strait. No additional talking points regarding Iran or MEK have received much publicity since 1979. Conclusion MEK is a wild card in the Iran standoff. The United States and other western powers, as well as Israel, must carefully consider how to proceed with MEK relationships. The organization has shown a history of changing allies in order to advance its goals, making it predictable in the sense that they can be counted on to do whatever it takes to survive and take control of the Iranian government. To brush MEK aside may mean dealing with a nuclear armed Iran later, and to support MEK may mean dealing with a provoked Iran now. No matter the decision, each carries its own implications for U.S. foreign policy. Washington must ultimately decide between the lesser of two evils. Bibliography Carter, Chelsea. Ã¢â¬Å"U.N., Iraq agree to temporary relocation of Iranian exiles.Ã¢â¬ CNN, December 26, 2011. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-12-26/middleeast/world_meast_iraq-camp-ashraf-re location_1_camp-ashraf-ashraf-residents-mek/2?_s=PM:MIDDLEEAST (accessed July 28, 2012). FBI. Ã¢â¬Å"Seven Plead Guilty to Providing Material Support to Designated Foreign Terrorist Organization.Ã¢â¬ FBI. http://www.fbi.gov/losangeles/press-releases/2009/la042809a.htm (accessed July 29, 2012). Goulka, Jeremiah, et al. Ã¢â¬Å"The Mujahedin-e Khalq in Iraq: A Policy Conundrum.Ã¢â¬ RAND Corporation: Santa Monica, 2009. Hosenball, Mark. Ã¢â¬Å"Hezbollah, Iran uncover CIA informants.Ã¢â¬ Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/11/21/us-cia-hezbollah-idUSTRE7AK2MQ20111121 (accessed August 23, 2012). Jones, Owen Bennet. Ã¢â¬Å"An Iranian mystery: Just who are the MEK?Ã¢â¬ BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-17615065 (accessed July 30, 2012). Joshi, Shashank. Ã¢â¬Å"Iran and the Mujahedin e Khalq (MEK).Ã¢â¬ Harvard University Department of Government. http://shashankjoshi.wordpress.com/2012/05/30/iran-and-the-mujahedin-e-khalq-mek/ (accessed August 24, 2012). Masters, Jonathan. Ã¢â¬ Mujahadeen-e-Khalq (MEK) (aka PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Mujahedin of Iran or PMOI).Ã¢â¬ Council on Foreign Relations, July 18, 2012. http://www.cfr.org/iran/mujahadeen-e-khalq-mek-aka-peoples-mujahedin-iran-pmoi/p9158 (accessed July 24, 2012). MEK. Ã¢â¬Å"Camp Ashraf: About Us.Ã¢â¬ MEK. http://www.campashraf.org/about/camp-ashraf/ (accessed July 30, 2012). Rajavi, Maryam. Ã¢â¬Å"Comprehensive sanctions is the essential first step, regime change is the final solution.Ã¢â¬ PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Mojahedin Organization of Iran. http://www.mojahedin.org/pagesen/detailsNews.aspx?newsid=9551 (accessed August 22, 2012).
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
An Overview Of John Berger's Article Ways Of Seeing John Berger wrote an article entitled Ways of Seeing . In this article of his, he imposes his opinion of works of art , what constitutes a work of art. He also talks about reproductions of art. His perception of reproductions is that they pervert the original piece, and that by reproduction the beauty and value of the piece is taken away, that the piece is not the same because it does not represent anymore what the artist originally intended. I do not agree with Berger. I do not see reproductions of art to be perversions of the original, and I also do not agree with his outline for a work of art . Reproduction allows people to see something they might never have, they allow the artist to gain more exposure, whereas if there had been no reproduction, only a handful of people might have seen it. As to what a work of art is, that is something I believe to be totally up to the observer. What one may perceive to be beautiful, an opinion perhaps brought on by personal experiences, another may not see the same way. A work of art I truly enjoy and respect is Salvador Dali s Table with Landscape . The joy of the painting for me comes from the intricacies that Dali weaves into the painting. The painting has many levels to it, a succession of realizations occur if the painting is studied long enough. When I first saw this painting, I saw a cup on a table, with a lot of scenery in the background. I do not consider myself someone who appreciates art in any particular form, so at first all I saw was a bland table with a cup on it. When I looked closer however, I began to see much more to the picture. The neck of the cup seemed to be part of a face, the mouth and nose of the face lying in the table. The scenery that I had previously disregarded as unimportant revealed itself to be much more. At the very top of the painting was a mountain landscape, and below it, mixed into the scenery, standing behind the cup on the table, was a dog! A dog? I said. Why on earth would Dali put a dog in his painting, and moreover, why would we make it such a concealed part of the painting. I did not understand at first Dali s reasoning for this strange painting, but as soon as I let go of my confusions, the painting started to make sense to me. I no longer cared what the painting had meant to Dali when he was painting it, but rather I was interested in what the painting meant to me. Perhaps this was wrong of me to totally disregard the painter s initial reason for creating the picture, but what concerned me most was the idea of the painting that was taking shape in my mind. I saw the painting as a part of my mind, seemingly one huge mass of thoughts and ideas thrown together making completely no sense. But when I looked closer, I could pick out individual parts of the painting. The parts might not have been related, but never the less they were separate. I found that my mind was the same way. It was a huge mass of ideas thrown together, but if I took the time to think, I could separate all the diff erent things I was thinking, and individually they all made sense. This is something I would do when I am confused, if there is too much going on in my head that it seems it is all one big mess, I take the time to separate the ideas and I slowly begin to understand my situation better. When I tell people about this painting and what it means to me, they often have no idea of what I could possibly mean, but the fact that they don t understand me is inconsequential, because the painting is special to me for my own reasons, and that is what is important to me. Before in this essay, I referred to Dali s painting as a work of art . What is a work of art ? Who determines what is or is not a work of art ? Berger talks about works of art , mainly when he refers to common paintings that most people recognize by name. Is this to imply that a piece of art has to be well known in order to be considered a work of art ? What about before these works of art were famous. They were merely canvases filled with paint, the same as they are today, yet at the time when they were produced, they were not immediately considered revolutionary and inspirational for their time. It took people to who had the means to view these paintings to give them such a distinction. Once again, I will repeat, people who had the means. The poor people of the time could not afford such luxuries to view pieces of art, so a painter obtained his praise from the high class solely, and only once the painting was famous enough to gain exposure could the lower class see it and make thei r own judgements, too late of course since the piece had already been dubbed a work of art and was revered. The fact that the piece was considered a work of art by one group may mean nothing to another person. This is because what one person may see to be an example of beauty in a painting, another person might have a different opinion. That is why I say a work of art is completely in the eye of the beholder, that is, art is a personal thing and we cannot expect a person to see exactly what we see, and appreciate it the same way as we may. Berger is strongly against reproduction of art. He says it perverts the original piece and takes away from its meaning. I cannot totally disagree with Berger that the idea of art may change with other people s perceptions, but I cannot agree with him that it is necessarily a bad thing. With the reproduction comes the void of what the painting means. The artist is no longer always there to tell you what he felt when painting that specific piece. That however, is to me the beautiful part of art. Being able to interpret the painting for your own reasons is a freedom that allows us to be creative. Berger argues that this sense of understanding the painting is called mystification (Berger, 108). It is nothing less than the painting working upon us (Berger, 109). He considers the artist to be a seducer, to make us think we understand the painting. Well then, which is it, do we understand the painting or don t we? It is true that we cannot understand the painter s perspective from looking a t the painting itself, but we can understand the painting for our own reasons, based on our own experiences. In the painting I described earlier, there are many possibilities as to what someone s first interpretation might be, or what would be the first thing they saw in the painting. I myself initially saw a cup on a table, but someone else might see the face in the cup first, or the dog in the background. All these reasons are because the painting means something different to each person. Also, would other people see all the aspects of the painting as I did, or would they merely see one thing surrounded by a massive amount of random items in the painting that seem to have no connection. The fact is, it does not matter. The way I interpret the painting will most probably be different from someone else s interpretation, that is because we look for different things in the painting. Our minds are stimulated in different ways. If we were not allowed to see the painting in our own light , if we were forced to see what the painter had originally intended, then our creative forces would be crippled, and our own ideas would mean nothing. In reality, our own ideas mean everything to us, they make us who we are, allow us to think freely, and draw our own conclusions. As I said, I do not believe a work of art can be decided upon by a small group of people, because then only their points of view are considered when making the decision. Berger was entitled to his own opinion on art reproduction. His own opinion is valid purely for the fact that it is his opinion and cannot be proven wrong by anyone because a person s opinion is his or her own idea, not a true or false statement.